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Hello, everyone.

I want to make thermodynamic models to test whether sulfate represents

an energetically favorable electron accepter for microbial respiration in the presence of lactic acid

as electron donor across a range of pH.

I read some paper and they used GWB but I don't know what app. of GWB is suitable.

If you know, please tell me.

Thank you for your attention.

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If you're using the free GWB Student Edition license, the SpecE8 program will be your best bet to do these calculations. The Redox disequilibrium lesson in the GWB Online Academy demonstrates how to calculate available energy in the environment. If you'd like more background material, the subject is explained in more detail in Chapter 7 of the Geochemical and Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling text.


If you're interested in usable energy, which is the difference between the available energy and the energy maintained by a cell, you'll have to make an additional calculation. The theory and procedure is described in Bethke et al.'s The Thermodynamic Ladder in Geomicrobiology.


If you have access to the React app (it's included in the GWB Professional and Standard packages) then you can perform the calculation at a variety of pH values more quickly by using a sliding pH path.


Hope this helps,


Brian Farrell

Aqueous Solutions LLC

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To: Brian Farrell




Thanks for your kind response, I got a lot of useful information.

Although I have not finished the analysis yet, your advice saved me.

I will do my best and work on it.


Thank you !!!


Ando Shota

Shizuoka University, Japan

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